Image editing - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. A colorized version of originally black and white photo, colorized using GIMPImage editing encompasses the processes of altering images, whether they are digital photographes, traditional photochemical photographs, or illustrations. Traditional analog image editing is known as photo retouching, using tools such as an airbrush to modify photographs, or editing illustrations with any traditional art medium. Graphic software programs, which can be broadly grouped into vector graphics editors, raster graphics editors, and 3. D modelers, are the primary tools with which a user may manipulate, enhance, and transform images.
Many image editing programs are also used to render or create computer art from scratch. This is an image of an image that has been edited as a Bokeh effect with a gaussian blur effect. Basics of image editingRaster images are stored in a computer in the form of a grid of picture elements, or pixels.
These pixels contain the image's color and brightness information. Image editors can change the pixels to enhance the image in many ways. The pixels can be changed as a group, or individually, by the sophisticated algorithms within the image editors. The domain of this article primarily refers to bitmap graphics editors, which are often used to alter photographs and other raster graphics. However, vector graphics software, such as Adobe Illustrator, Corel. DRAW, Xara Designer Pro or Inkscape, are used to create and modify vector images, which are stored as descriptions of lines, BГ©zier curves, and text instead of pixels. It is easier to rasterize a vector image than to vectorize a raster image; how to go about vectorizing a raster image is the focus of much research in the field of computer vision.
Best Digital Photo Editing Software. Photo Editing Software is critical for modifying and enhancing your. There's another program that you probably. Digital Photography Review: All the latest digital camera reviews and digital imaging news. Lively discussion forums. Vast samples galleries and the largest database. Digital Photography Review. 10 Photo Editing Programs (that aren't Photoshop. If you work mainly with RAW files and need a program to quickly.
Vector images can be modified more easily, because they contain descriptions of the shapes for easy rearrangement. They are also scalable, being rasterizable at any resolution. Automatic image enhancementCamera or computer image editing programs often offer basic automatic image enhancement features that correct color hue and brightness imbalances as well as other image editing features, such as red eye removal, sharpness adjustments, zoom features and automatic cropping. These are called automatic because generally they happen without user interaction or are offered with one click of a button or mouse button or by selecting an option from a menu. Additionally, some automatic editing features offer a combination of editing actions with little or no user interaction. Digital data compressionMany image file formats use data compression to reduce file size and save storage space. Digital compression of images may take place in the camera, or can be done in the computer with the image editor.
When images are stored in JPEG format, compression has already taken place. Both cameras and computer programs allow the user to set the level of compression. Some compression algorithms, such as those used in PNG file format, are lossless, which means no information is lost when the file is saved. By contrast, the JPEG file format uses a lossy compression algorithm by which the greater the compression, the more information is lost, ultimately reducing image quality or detail that can not be restored.
JPEG uses knowledge of the way the human brain and eyes perceive color to make this loss of detail less noticeable. Image editor featuresListed below are some of the most used capabilities of the better graphic manipulation programs. The list is by no means all inclusive. There are a myriad of choices associated with the application of most of these features. SelectionOne of the prerequisites for many of the applications mentioned below is a method of selecting part(s) of an image, thus applying a change selectively without affecting the entire picture.
Most graphics programs have several means of accomplishing this, such as: a marquee tool for selecting rectangular or other regular polygon- shaped regions,a lasso tool for freehand selection of a region,a magic wand tool that selects objects or regions in the image defined by proximity of color or luminance,vector- based pen tools,as well as more advanced facilities such as edge detection, masking, alpha compositing, and color and channel- based extraction. The border of a selected area in an image is often animated with the marching ants effect to help the user to distinguish the selection border from the image background. Another feature common to many graphics applications is that of Layers, which are analogous to sheets of transparent acetate (each containing separate elements that make up a combined picture), stacked on top of each other, each capable of being individually positioned, altered and blended with the layers below, without affecting any of the elements on the other layers. This is a fundamental workflow which has become the norm for the majority of programs on the market today, and enables maximum flexibility for the user while maintaining non- destructive editing principles and ease of use.
Target software: Voice Editing Ver.2.0 Premium Edition: Update Version: Voice Editing Ver.2.1 Premium Edition: Download file name/Volume Divided module. Image editing encompasses the processes of altering images, whether they are digital photographes, traditional photochemical photographs, or illustrations. Best Free Digital Image Editor. which will enhance your understanding of both the program and digital photography. Digital Image Editing Suites. Digital media are any media that are encoded in a machine-readable format. . Lovelace's instructions are now believed to be the first computer program. . Avid Certification The New York Film Academy trains students on Avid's Media Composer. Media Composer is the leading digital editing software in the industry.
Image size alterationImage editors can resize images in a process often called image scaling, making them larger, or smaller. High image resolution cameras can produce large images which are often reduced in size for Internet use.
Digital Editing College and School Program Information. Digital editing involves usage of various software to streamline digital content and images.
Image editor programs use a mathematical process called resampling to calculate new pixel values whose spacing is larger or smaller than the original pixel values. Images for Internet use are kept small, say 6.
Cropping an imageDigital editors are used to crop images. Cropping creates a new image by selecting a desired rectangular portion from the image being cropped. The unwanted part of the image is discarded.
Image cropping does not reduce the resolution of the area cropped. Best results are obtained when the original image has a high resolution. A primary reason for cropping is to improve the image composition in the new image. Uncropped image from camera. Lily cropped from larger image.
HistogramImage editors have provisions to create an image histogram of the image being edited. The histogram plots the number of pixels in the image (vertical axis) with a particular brightness value (horizontal axis). Algorithms in the digital editor allow the user to visually adjust the brightness value of each pixel and to dynamically display the results as adjustments are made. Improvements in picture brightness and contrast can thus be obtained.
Histogram of Sunflower image. Noise reductionImage editors may feature a number of algorithms which can add or remove noise in an image.
Some JPEG artifacts can be removed; dust and scratches can be removed and an image can be de- speckled. Noise reduction merely estimates the state of the scene without the noise and is not a substitute for obtaining a "cleaner" image. Excessive noise reduction leads to a loss of detail, and its application is hence subject to a trade- off between the undesirability of the noise itself and that of the reduction artifacts.
Noise tends to invade images when pictures are taken in low light settings. A new picture can be given an 'antiqued' effect by adding uniform monochrome noise. Removal of unwanted elementsMost image editors can be used to remove unwanted branches, etc., using a "clone" tool. Removing these distracting elements draws focus to the subject, improving overall composition. Notice the branch in the original. The eye is drawn to the center of the globe.
Selective color changeSome image editors have color swapping abilities to selectively change the color of specific items in an image, given that the selected items are within a specific color range. Image orientation.
Image orientation (from left to right): original, в€’3. В° CCW rotation, and flipped. Image editors are capable of altering an image to be rotated in any direction and to any degree. Mirror images can be created and images can be horizontally flipped or vertically flopped. A small rotation of several degrees is often enough to level the horizon, correct verticality (of a building, for example), or both.
Rotated images usually require cropping afterwards, in order to remove the resulting gaps at the image edges. Perspective control and distortion. Perspective control: original (left), perspective distortion removed (right). Some image editors allow the user to distort (or "transform") the shape of an image. While this might also be useful for special effects, it is the preferred method of correcting the typical perspective distortion which results from photographs being taken at an oblique angle to a rectilinear subject. Care is needed while performing this task, as the image is reprocessed using interpolation of adjacent pixels, which may reduce overall image definition. The effect mimics the use of a perspective control lens, which achieves a similar correction in- camera without loss of definition.
Lens correctionPhoto manipulation packages have functions to correct images for various lens distortions including pincushion, fisheye and barrel distortions. The corrections are in most cases subtle, but can improve the appearance of some photographs. Enhancing imagesIn computer graphics, the process of improving the quality of a digitally stored image by manipulating the image with software. It is quite easy, for example, to make an image lighter or darker, or to increase or decrease contrast. Advanced photo enhancement software also supports many filters for altering images in various ways. Programs specialized for image enhancement are sometimes called image editors.
Best Free Digital Image Editor. В Digital image editors mix painting and drawing tools with some features specific to digital imaging. Digital imaging is the creating of images from the physical environment. That normally means using cameras or scanners which have two additional features you should know about.
Digital imaging systems produce a raw image file which is the image detected by the sensors. This raw image is processed to produce an image file, most commonly the JPEG image format,В which we then view and edit in our digital image editor. The Raw files are often described as "digital negatives" because they have a similar role to the negatives produced by film photography. For this article, you just need to know that some digital image editors are able to decode Raw files and provide further options for editing those images. When a raw image is created the camera or scanner also stores information about the state of the imaging device and the physical conditions.
This data is called meta- data because it is "data about data". You just need to know that there are standard formats for storing this meta- data. The two most common standards being Exif (Exchangeable Image File) and DCF (Design rule for Camera File system). I have deliberately looked for application programs that allow you to examine and edit these two features: process raw images and view or edit Exif/DCF data. There are many good products which is why there are so many options in this category. Just remember that very few are general- purpose so most users will benefit from mixing products from the this category and the image viewer and photo organizer categories.
This article does not include on- line or web- based digital image editors which are reviewed in their own category Best Free Web- Based Image Editor. В В Go straight to the Quick Selection Guide. В В Read this article in Spanish (Espa. Г±ol)В В Read this article in Chinese (дёж–‡)Previous versions of this article have used three groupings which I am supplementing with a fourth group for suites: Basic editors are programs that only allow you to edit an existing image: "those little gems that help you quickly and easily make small adjustments to the overall lighting, colors, and tones of your images without the clutter of a lot of advanced tool sets. These also offer such tools as cropping, sharpening, and red eye correction." Ease of use is the key. Mid- level editors offer more advanced tools like layers, adding captions and shapes, the ability to select portions of the image and make adjustments to just those portions, etc.
These will also offer filters for applying textures, artistic effects, edge enhancements, borders and frames. The breadth of image enhancements and drawing tools are the most important considerations. Advanced editors have advanced photographic features that work with the features of specific cameras and the files that they generate. They usually compete with professional programs like Photoshop or Paint Shop Pro in some aspects if not all. The primary criterion is the ability to work with imaging from many devices. Digital imaging suites that bundle related modules or programs to extend the functionality of the core image editor. The extra features can be both basic and advanced so the suites generally cover all three levels of capability.
There is no primary criterion for this group because they cover aspects of the other three classes. The following are key features that will help you to decide which digital image editor is best for you. General features. Basic photo features. Drawing and painting features.
Layers allow objects and effefts to be separated from the original image and from each other. Layers also allow drawn objects to retain their properties when an image file is saved.
Vector graphic and font support so that drawn objects are scale independent while you are working with them. Drawing tools including lines, brushes, shapes/polygons, clip art, fonts, accompanied by transformations that alter the drawn objects. Complex selections including silhouettes, tracing, and clipping paths.
This allows areas to be selected by the outline, based on a colour, or by any shape that you want. The example to the right shows the Chasys IES Artist's magic wand selecting a shade of black anywhere in the image. В вџ№. Drawing file format support e. EPS, SVG, DDS (for games).
Advanced photo features. Professional color support. HDR (High- Dynamic Range) support. Normally, 2. 55 levels (8 bits) are used for each color of Red, Green & Blue (RGB) and the alpha channel to make up 3.
So if you want to retain as much detail as possible then you should consider using 1. That is why the HDR file formats are important. Some programs are limited to 8- bits per channel and others require plug- ins. Suitable file formats for HDR also provide for metadata, transparency, color management, and some handle layers (L) too.
A couple are vector- based (V). The main difference between them all is the maximum bits for greater color depth. Device dependent but normally 3. Adobe EPSVL. 3. 2- bit: IMA, TIFF (floating), SVGVL.
ORAL, Photoline's PLDL, Photoshop's PSDL, XAMLVL. EXR (used for video rendering), Microsoft's HD Photo/JPEG XR and DDSV (used for gaming)Color management to reproduce colors accurately on various devices, for example, displayed on your screen and printed on paper. The Windows Color System (WCS) is not enabled by default. The following two features are part of color management вџ№.
Color space conversion (gamut mapping between different color spaces) allows the best representation of colours. RGB is usually the default. Rendering intent which indicates the priority for color representation.
The International Color Consortium (ICC) has four profiles that are used to match the image color space to the output device color space. Two factors determine the colors you will see. What happens to colors that fall outside the output device gamut and what happens to the white point. Several articles review programs with similar functions: Best Free Digital Image Viewer reviews software to visualize images and includes many products that have their own editing capabilities. Best Free Web- Based Image Editor has the web- based equivalents. Best Free Paint Program also works with bitmaps but focuses on creating paint- like images. Best Free Digital Photo Organizer reviews photo- cataloguing software that usually has the ability to link with photo editors and often has its own editing capabilities.
Best Free Vector Graphics Editor looks at image editors that don't rely on bitmap or raster graphics to produce images or drawings. Like its online equivalent, Autodesk's Pixlr Desktop(for Windows or Mac) is part of the new wave of easy to use but powerful image editors with many special effects. It has two levels of features for free use. If you settle for the default Starter edition then you have access to a broad set of transformations. Once you sign- in you unlock the Essentials edition which has "HD border packs, 4. These additions are indicated by a pink ribbon the first time you use them as illustrated in the example screenshot. You will generally be working at the photo level because masking and the ability to select elements of the image are reserved for the paid Pro edition.
Most of us will be more than satisfied with the free version because some of the transformations can be localised. While Pixlr is not a paint program - there are no drawing tools and no layers - it does have the usual basic visual controls and fixes. It also has clipart (called stickers), backgrounds (overlays), and many special effects. The menu and toolbar are consistent and easy to use too.
The on- line user guide is easy to follow but most of us will never need to refer to it. So it is a very good choice for any beginner. Photo. Pad Image Editor. В is free for "non- commercial home use". It would be a top product except a few significant issues which I explain below. On the upside it is a very good photo editor for basic users because it has a very consistent interface with tabbed toolbars that duplicate the main menu apart from the View menu. В It has a few surprises like the ability to open many image formats including many Raw formats.
В The downside is that the editing interface is not highly responsive making it difficult to accurately size objects and select values on a slider. The feature that really sets Photo. Pad apart from the other programs is the history and layers sidebar which shows everything that you have done. Although layers aren't explicitly defined by users Photo. Pad uses them so you can click on a history item and see what your image looked like at any stage of editing. You can remove any effect from the history and that change will propagate through the layers to the final image. When you save your work as a project file it will reopen with all the history.
But if you save it in one of the limited number of savable image formats (BMP, JPEG, PNG) then the history will be lost. Just be aware that Photo. Pad has to reapply all the changes which can take minutes for the completed image to appear. This is one example where Photo. Pad is not very responsive for users. Photo. Pad has an extensive range of features that could mean that you don't have to download other software.
Built- in are tools to combine photos into a panorama, a collage, or a mosaic (which was not random enough for me). В Plus you can share your images using Flickr, Facebook, email, Drop. Box and Google Drive. However, its greatest limitation is that it has no drawing tools apart from a pen and an online clipart collection. This will frustrate you if you need to do some blending.
All tools can apply to the whole image or a region which can be selected using any polygon shape, a lasso, a magnet (to select along the edges of an element) or a wand to select a region with similar attributes. В You need to be aware of the following issues. The cloning tool is called "Touch Up".